The Fifth assessment report (AR5) of 2015 and the 2018 Special report on the implications of the 1.5ºC global
warming produced by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicated that keeping global temperature
rise below 1.5ºC would require ‘deep emissions reductions and rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all
aspects of society’, The IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C (SR 1.5) finds that as of 2017, global
warming reached 1°C and climate change is already affecting people, ecosystems and livelihoods around the world with disproportionately greater impacts on developing countries.
Africa, which contributes only 3.6% of the total global emissions, is disproportionately affected by the impacts
of climate change than any other continent because of its extreme dependency on natural resources and cycles and
its weak adaptive capacity. At current rates of emissions, 1 global warming would reach 1.5°C between 2030 and
2050. These stark warnings from the IPCC are a call to swift and concerted action to ensure the resilience of the African continent to climate change, taking into account how this intersects with other drivers of global environmental change.
The report clearly indicated the requirement at global level of four rapid and far-reaching transitions in energy, land, urban and infrastructure (including transport and buildings), and